Over-The-Top is an over-dominance of the upper body during the downswing, that throws the club outside of the normal swing plane. If the plane of the downswing is too steep, it will force the lead wrist to extend and the lead elbow to flex causing abnormal loads into the forearm muscles.

We typically find hip can not rotate and/or they can not extend well

Chicken Winging

Chicken Winging is a loss of extension or breakdown of the lead elbow through the impact area. Since the lead arm doesn't fully extend into impact, it causes the lead elbow to have excessive extension forces and the trail elbow to have excessive flexion forces. This is why most unskilled players develop tennis elbow in their lead arm and golfer's elbow in their trail arm. It is important to remember that a dysfunctional lower body is the main cause of Chicken Winging


Casting, Early Release, and Scooping all refer to any premature release of the wrist angles during the downswing and through impact (like the casting of a fishing rod) The angle loss results in a weakened impact position with the leas wrist being cupped at the ball strike. If the trailing arm takes over too early and throws the club from the top of the swing, excessive forces can be placed in the flexors on the trail forearm, which may lead to golfers' elbow. If the casting is due to the excessive pulling of the club by the lead arm this can lead to excessive forces will be placed in the extensors on the lead forearm, which may lead to tennis elbow. 

We typically find limited shoulder and hip mobility

Fat Divots
Fat divots refer to any excessive digging into the turf before or through impact.

There are a few important facts to remember with fat divots. First, most players take a divot with their irons, this is normal. Second, a good shot hits the ball first and takes the divot after the ball. Third, most fat shots are not due to a swing that is hitting two recessive down on the ball or steep. It is usually the complete opposite. A swing that is too shallow or hitting up on the ball tends to take a fat divot more often. Lastly, club fitting can be extremely important to not taking fat divots. Clubs that have the wrong lie angle or wrong length can lead to fat divots. 

Hitting Off of Hard Surfaces
This is not a swing characteristic, but more of an overall warning.

Many Players spend countless hours grinding away on their golf swing at the local driving range. Unfortunately, many driving ranges don't have real turf and force players to practice hitting off of old worn out driving range mats. These are rubber based products that sit on top of concrete. The repeated stress of hitting down on these hard surfaces can be quite destructive to the muscles, bond, and tendons of the wrist.


A Few Last Various Wrist Injury Inducing Mechanic
  • Alteration of the Grip
  • A Death Grip
  • A Palm Grip
  • Wrong Size Grips
  • Wrong Shaft Type or Flex