Casting

Casting, Early Release, and Scooping all refer to any premature release of the wrist angles during the downswing and through impact (like the casting of a fishing rod) The angle loss results in a weakened impact position with the leas wrist being cupped at the ball strike. If the trailing arm takes over too early and throws the club from the top of the swing, excessive forces can be placed in the flexors on the trail forearm, which may lead to golfers' elbow. If the casting is due to the excessive pulling of the club by the lead arm this can lead to excessive forces will be placed in the extensors on the lead forearm, which may lead to tennis elbow. 

We typically find limited shoulder and hip mobility

Fat Divots
Fat divots refer to any excessive digging into the turf before or through impact.

There are a few important facts to remember with fat divots. First, most players take a divot with their irons, this is normal. Second, a good shot hits the ball first and takes the divot after the ball. Third, most fat shots are not due to a swing that is hitting two recessive down on the ball or steep. It is usually the complete opposite. A swing that is too shallow or hitting up on the ball tends to take a fat divot more often. Lastly, club fitting can be extremely important to not taking fat divots. Clubs that have the wrong lie angle or wrong length can lead to fat divots. 

 

Trail Arm Vertical

Trail Arm Vertical describes the orientation of the trail forearm at the top of the backswing. Many golfers have been told to think they need to get their trail forearm vertical or perpendicular to the ground, in order to support the club. If a player lacks the external rotation and scapular stability to get into this position, pain can results. Forced external rotation on the backswing is not a friendly position for a shoulder with limited mobility. 

Limited Follow-Through

Anytime a player tries to forcefully stop the natural momentum created after impact, it is called a limited follow-through. Just like the fat shots create a deceleration injury, so does a limited or sawed-off follow-through. Once again this puts excessively high force stress on the decelerators of the shoulder.